TERRORISM AROUND US (abridged)
Article by Mr. Avi Nardia, Head Instructor
for Lotar International
Abridged by J.L. Coffman, Tactical Instructor
for Lotar International
Based on the web
(Very Graphic Photos)
September 11 attacks and suicide bombing was something new for
most Americans but for many terror victims around the world such
as Israel, Russia, and Seri Lanka who have lived with it for more
than last 50 years, it was sad but not new. Only in the magnitude
of the destruction and loss of life was new. The attacks on the
World Trade Center and the Pentagon harnessed modern Technology
to the age-old tactic of suicide terrorism. Because the hijackers
were willing to die, they could turn passenger jets into deadly
missiles and inflict massive casualties.
Suicide bombing is not something new! Most terrorism throughout history have
carried a high risk of death for the terrorists themselves. Traditionally the
main weapon of the attack was the dagger, and unless the victim could be found
alone and defenseless, early terrorists or Guerilla fighters (Guerilla are
fighting military, and terrorist attack civilians. This is the big different
between the names) were unlikely to return from their missions. And the makeshift
bombs used by nineteenth-century anarchists and Russian revolutionaries were
so unstable that they had to be thrown from a short distance (that is, if they
did not explode first in the hands of the attacker). Those who went on an attack
of this kind were fully aware of the risk and many of them wrote farewell letters
to their friends and families.
The development of more sophisticated weapons
in the twentieth century allowed terrorists to kill from a distance. At the
same time, many groups got over their inhibitions about killing large numbers
of innocent victims indiscriminately, so close-up targeting became less necessary.
These factors made attacks less risky and de facto suicide terrorism less
common. But suicide terrorism has reemerged with a vengeance in
the last two decades as a favored tactic of certain terrorist groups.
Among the reasons these groups choose suicide terrorism is the fear
it generates and the ability to execute accurate,
large-scale attacks without sophisticated technology.
Suicide terrorism in not linked to any particular religion or Nationality.
Far and away the largest number of suicide terrorist attacks in recent years
have come from the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, or Tamil Tigers),
a separatist group fighting the government of Sri Lanka. Using suicide attackers,
the Tigers managed to kill two heads of state,
Indian Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi, in 1991, and Sri Lankan President,
Ranasinghe Premadasa, in 1993.
The phenomenon reaches far beyond Sri Lanka, however. Other groups that have
embraced suicide terrorism include the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a
Kurdish, Marxist separatist group fighting the government of Turkey; Hezbollah,
an Iranian-backed group of Shiite Islamists based in Lebanon; and al-Qaeda,
Osama bin Laden's network of radical Sunni Islamists. And while not technically
terrorism (Since it was Military to Military fight), the kamikaze attacks
of Japanese pilots during World War II also showed a willingness to use suicide
as a weapon. The concept of self-sacrifice is not specific to any given culture.
The most recent wave of suicide terrorism began with attacks by Hezbollah
in Lebanon in 1983. The tactic was adopted by the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka
in 1987, by the Palestinian Islamist group Hamas in Israel in 1994, and by
the PKK in Turkey in 1996. Al-Qaeda embraced suicide terrorism in the mid-1990s
when the network began planning the 1998
bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania and other attacks. The
second Palestinian intifada (uprising), which began in 2000, has featured
numerous suicide attacks from both religious and secular Palestinian terrorist
groups. In May 2002, FBI director Robert S. Mueller III said future suicide
attacks on American soil are "inevitable“, It had a clue in Lebanon 1982
by attacked of Suicide bomber driving car to the Marines base in Beirut.
Many times when teaching counter-terror methodology, we face skepticism when
we get to the topic of suicide bomber or disarming situations. The truth
is, weapon take away or suicide bomber disarming is not something we chose
to encounter, it's a situation that we suddenly find ourselves in, and one
from which there is no way out. One more important thing to understand when
we deal with suicide bombing is the word damage control. When I was as at
the police academy we were always trying to define what a suicide bomber
looks like. The theories changed from week to week as reality revealed that
he could have long hair, short hair, and short tall, educated, uneducated
with children, without children. Once they were sure only young single men,
then it became married with children also. But reality slapped us in the
face. From experience we know that a suicide bomber can be of any race, religion,
man or woman, with or without a family. The external appearance of a suicide
bomber turns out to be a lot harder to define than the mental makeup.
Suicide terrorists are not necessarily crazy.
Such terrorists are deeply committed to their causes and see themselves as
martyrs. Self-sacrifice is a way of legitimizing a cause, inspiring imitation,
and promising individual glory. Terrorism is not just brutal, unthinking
violence it often has something behind it. There is almost always a strategy
behind terrorist actions. Whether it takes the form of bombings, shootings,
hijackings, or assassinations, terrorism is neither random, spontaneous,
nor blind; it is a deliberate use of violence against civilians for political
or religious ends.
Even though most people can recognize terrorism when they see it, we have
had difficulty coming up with an ironclad definition. The State Department
in the USA defines terrorism as "premeditated, politically motivated violence
perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine
agents, usually intended to influence an audience." In another useful
attempt to produce a definition, Paul Pillar, a former deputy chief of the
CIA's Counter-terrorist Center, argues that there are four key elements of
1.It is premeditated-planned in advance, rather than an impulsive act of
2.It is political-not criminal, like the violence that groups such
as the mafia use to get money, but designed to change the existing political
3.It is aimed at civilians-not at military targets or combat-ready troops.
4.It is carried out by sub national groups, not by the army of a country.
The word "terrorism” was coined during France's Reign of Terror
in 1793-94. Originally, the leaders of this systematized attempt to weed
out "traitors" among
the revolutionary ranks, terror was seen as the best way to defend liberty,
but as the French Revolution soured, the word soon took on grim echoes of
state violence and guillotines. Today, most terrorists dislike the label.
The oldest Guerilla fighters were holy warriors who killed Romans soldiers.
For instance, in first-century Palestine, Jewish Zealots would publicly slit
the throats of Romans and their collaborators; in seventh-century India,
the Thuggee cult would ritually strangle passersby as sacrifices to the Hindu
deity Kali; and in the eleventh-century Middle East, the Shiite sect known
as the Assassins would eat hashish before murdering civilian foes. Recognizably
modern forms of terrorism back to such late-nineteenth-century organizations
as Narodnaya Volya ("People's Will"), an anti-tsarist group in
Russia. One particularly successful early case of terrorism was the 1914
assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serb extremist, an
event that helped trigger World War I. Even more familiar forms of terrorism
often custom made for TV cameras-first appeared on July 22, 1968, when the
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine undertook the first terrorist
hijacking of a commercial airplane. Terrorism aimed at an audience. Terrorist
acts are often deliberately spectacular, designed to rattle and influence
a wide audience, beyond the victims of the violence itself. The point is
to use the psychological impact of violence or of the threat of violence
to effect political change. As the terrorism expert Brian Jenkins bluntly
put it in 1974, "Terrorism is theatre."
Different types of terrorism
While these categories are not written in stone, experts have
identified at least six different sorts of terrorism:
Nationalist terror groups seek to form a separate state for there own national
group, often by drawing attention to a fight for "National Liberation" that
they think the world has ignored. This sort of terrorism has been among the
most successful at winning international sympathy and concessions. Nationalist
terror groups have tended to calibrate their use of violence, using enough
to rivet world attention but not so much that they alienate supporters abroad
or members of there base community. Nationalist terrorism can be difficult
to define, since many groups accused of the practice insist that they are not
but freedom fighters.
Nationalist terrorist groups include the Irish Republican
and the Palestine
Liberation Organization, both of which said during the1990s that they had
renounced terrorism. Other prominent examples are the Basque
Liberty, which seeks to create a Basque homeland separate from Spain, and
the Kurdistan Workers' Party, which seeks to create a Kurdish state independent
terrorists seek to use violence to further what they see as divinely commanded
purposes, often targeting broad categories of foes in an attempt to bring
about sweeping changes. Religious terrorists come from many major faiths, as
well as from small cults. This type of terrorism is growing swiftly, in 1995
(the most recent year for which such statistics were available), nearly half
of the 56 known, active international terrorist groups were religiously
motivated. Because religious terrorists are concerned not with
rallying a constituency of fellow nationalists or ideologues
but with pursuing their own vision of the divine will. These groups
lack one of the major constraints that historically has limited
the scope of terror attacks. The most extreme religious terrorists
can sanction "almost limitless violence against a virtually
open-ended category of targets: that is, anyone who is not a member
of the terrorists' religion or religious sect."
Examples include Osama bin Laden's al- Qaeda network,
Sunni Muslim organization Hamas,
Shiite group Hezbollah
American white-supremacist militias, and the Aum Shinrikyo Doomsday cult
terrorist groups are deliberately used by radical states as foreign policy
tools as a cost-effective way of waging war covertly,
through the use of surrogate warriors or 'guns
for hire. One important early case was the Iranian
government's use of supposedly independent young
militants to seize hostages at the American embassy
in Tehran in 1979. With enhanced resources at
their disposal, state-sponsored terrorist groups are
often capable of carrying out more deadly attacks
than other terrorists, including airplane bombings
However, could be the nature of terrorism may
now be changing. Terrorists want a lot of people
watching, not a lot of people dead. But the emergence
of religious terror groups with apocalyptic outlooks
and the availability of weapons of mass destruction
may indicate that inflicting mass casualties
has supplanted publicity as the primary goal
of some terrorist campaigns. Terrorists want
governments and the public to pay attention,
and the media provide the conduit. Terrorism
is calculated violence, usually against symbolic
targets, designed to deliver a political or religious
message. Beyond that, terrorists' goals might
also include winning popular support, provoking
the attacked country to act rashly, attracting
recruits, polarizing public opinion, demonstrating
their ability to cause pain, or undermining governments.
Terrorists try to attract media attention for
that, terrorists say they design their operations
Timothy McVeigh, who was convicted of the 1995 Oklahoma City
bombing that killed 168 people, said he chose the Murrah Federal Building as
a target because it had "plenty of open space around it, to allow for
the best possible news photos and television footage." The Italian leftist
Red Brigades liked to stage attacks on Saturdays to make it into the Sunday
newspapers, which had a higher circulation. And the Palestinian group Black
September took Israeli athletes hostage at the 1972 Munich Olympics because
television sets worldwide were already tuned in to the games and the concentrated
foreign press would amplify the story. Terrorist groups study the media carefully,
and some groups have their own media operations; the Colombian leftists of
the FARC, for example, put out their own radio broadcasts, and many groups
have promotional Web
The media attention help terrorists! The old saying that any publicity is good
publicity has often been applied to terrorism, even when an assassin misses
or a bomb doesn't go off, an attack can raise awareness about the terrorists'
Terrorism, which garners a disproportionately large share of news coverage,
can also move neglected issues to the top of the political agenda, as a series
of attacks in the 1970s and 1980s did for the cause of Palestinian nationalism.
Terrorism can also provoke policy debates and public discussion by highlighting
both the terrorists' radical views and the visceral anger of terrorism's victims
and their families. But other experts doubt that media coverage really helps
terrorists. Attacks can spin out of control or have unintended consequences,
too much slaughter can alienate potential supporters and sympathizers; terrorist
activities have different meanings for different audiences, and even when terrorists'
attack plans work, they cannot necessarily control how their actions are covered
or perceived. Finally, being saddled with the pejorative label "terrorist" focuses
attention on a group's methods, not its message, and can delegitimize its cause
in the public eye.
Why do the media cover terrorist attacks?
Because terrorist attacks are news, so journalists say. Many terrorism scholars
have identified a symbiotic relationship between terrorists, who want attention,
and news organizations, which want dramatic stories to boost readership or
ratings. Most news organizations, while aware that terrorist groups are manipulating
them, want to report on major events without becoming a platform for terrorists.
Critics say live television news is particularly susceptible to becoming an
unwitting partner in the theater of terrorism.
Can media coverage shape the outcome of a terrorist incident?
Yes, in various ways. Experts say sustained coverage of a hijacking sometimes
protects hostages' lives by building international sympathy for their plight.
But it can also prolong a hostage situation since terrorists may hold out until
the publicity and therefore the attention fades. When an unfolding attack is
covered on television, a lull in real-time developments can make it seem like
a government isn't responding to an attack and lead to pressure on officials
to resolve the situation, perhaps prematurely, with dangerous consequences.
Media coverage can also disrupt or prevent counter-terrorist operations. It
can tell hijackers how their attack is proceeding and even tip them off to
a rescue attempt. But it can also lead to arrests. The decision by major U.S.
newspapers to publish the anti-modern political manifesto of the Unabomber,
a lone serial mail bomber who eluded FBI investigators for 17 years, brought
about his identification and capture.
What is narco-terrorism?
According to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), narco-terrorism refers
to terrorist acts carried out by groups that are directly or indirectly involved
in cultivating, manufacturing, transporting, or distributing illicit drugs.
The term is generally applied to groups that use the drug trade to fund terrorism.
However, it has also sometimes been used to refer to the phenomenon of increasingly
close ties between powerful drug lords motivated by simple criminal profit
and terrorist groups with political agendas, particularly in Colombia. But
some experts say that the term is too vague and is mostly used by politically
driven Western politicians and journalists out to score rhetorical points.
They argue that nearly every terrorist group operating today raises some money
from the drug trade, and that while terrorists and drug traffickers often share
some short-term goals, they have different long-term objectives (political
goals for terrorists, greed for drug lords) and shouldn't be conflated.
How are terrorist groups connected to the drug trade?
In several ways, some terrorist groups, like Colombia's FARC, collect taxes
from people who cultivate or process illicit drugs on lands that it controls,
others, including Hezbollah, Colombia's AUC, traffic in drugs themselves. Moreover,
some terrorist groups are supported by states funded by the drug trade; Afghanistan's
former Taliban rulers, for instance, earned anestimated $40 million to $50
million per year from taxes related to opium. The drug trade is also a significant
part of the economies of Syria
has funded terrorist organizations such as Hezbollah, the Popular Front
for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command, and Palestinian Islamic Jihad-and
Lebanon <http://www.terrorismanswers.com/havens/lebanon.html>, a haven
for numerous terrorist groups including Hezbollah and Hamas.
Why would terrorists turn to drug trafficking?
Because they need money-for weapons, equipment, training, computers and other
information systems, transportation, bribes, safe houses, forged passports
and other documents, and even payroll. Drugs are a handy way to get cash
and lots of it.
Is the drug trade lucrative?
Extremely. Heroin, cocaine, and marijuana are uncomplicated and cheap to produce,
but because they're illegal and therefore risky to supply, they can earn more
than their weight in gold on the vast international black market. The United
Nations estimated in 1998 that the illicit drug business generates about $400
billion per year. Also, because the drug trade is secretive, terrorists can
amass large sums of cash without being detected by authorities.
Is narco-terrorism increasing since September 11?
Perhaps, U.S. authorities say the new international climate including crackdowns
on terrorist funding and growing international pressure on state sponsors of
terrorism-may drive some terrorists deeper into the drug trade. One example
Do terrorists use the drug trade to wreak havoc?
They might, some expert’s say. Osama bin Laden has reportedly advocated
using narcotics trafficking to weaken Western societies by supplying them with
addictive drugs. (In 2000, Americans spent almost $63 billion on illegal narcotics.)
What is cyber-terrorism?
Terrorism that involves computers, networks, and the information they contain.
Computer networks have been attacked during recent conflicts in Kosovo, Kashmir,
and the Middle East, but the damage has mostly been limited to defaced Web
sites or blocked Internet servers. However, with American society increasingly
interconnected and ever more dependent on information technology, terrorism
expert’s worry that cyber-terrorist
attacks could cause as much devastation as more familiar forms of terrorism.
Is the United States vulnerable to cyber-terrorism?
Yes, but experts disagree about how large and immediate a threat cyber-terrorism
poses. In 1997, the Pentagon simulated a Cyber-attack and found that attackers
using ordinary computers and widely available software could disrupt military
communications, electrical power, and 911 networks in several American cities.
Hacking tools and expertise have become only more widespread since then.
Is cyber-terrorism the same as hacking?
No. While some people use the term "cyber-terrorism" (which was coined
in the 1980s) to refer to any major computer-based attack on the U.S. government
or economy, many terrorism experts would not consider cyber-attacks by glory-seeking
individuals, organizations with criminal motives, or hostile governments engaging
in information warfare to be cyber-terrorism. Like other terrorist acts, cyber-terror
attacks are typically premeditated, politically motivated, perpetrated by small
groups rather than governments, and designed to call attention to a cause,
spread fear, or otherwise influence the public and decision-makers. Hackers
break in to computer systems for many reasons, often to display their own technical
prowess or demonstrate the fallibility of computer security. Some on-line activists
say that activities such as defacing Web sites are disruptive but essentially
nonviolent, much like civil disobedience.
Why would terrorists turn to cyber-attacks?
Terrorists try to leverage limited resources to instill fear and shape public
opinion, and dramatic attacks on computer networks could provide a means
to do this with only small teams and minimal funds. Moreover, "virtual" attacks
over the Internet or other networks allow attackers to be far away, making
borders, X-ray machines, and other physical barriers irrelevant. Cyber-terrorists
would not need a complicit or weak government (as al-Qaeda had in Afghanistan)
to host them as they train and plot. On-line attackers can also cloak their
true identities and locations, choosing to remain anonymous or pretending
to be someone else.
Terrorists might also try to use cyber-attacks to amplify the effect of other
attacks. For example, they might try to block emergency communications or cut
off electricity or water in the wake of a conventional bombing or a biological,
chemical, or radiation attack. Many experts say that this kind of coordinated
attack might be the most effective use of cyber-terrorism.
What kinds of attacks are considered cyber-terrorism?
Cyber-terrorism could involve destroying the actual machinery of the information
infrastructure; remotely disrupting the information technology underlying
the Internet, government computer networks, or critical civilian systems
such as financial networks or mass media; or using computer networks to take
over machines that control traffic lights, power plants, or dams in order
to wreak havoc.
How do cyber-attacks work?
Attacks on the physical components of the information infrastructure would
resemble other conventional attacks: for example, a bomb could be used to
destroy a government computer bank, key components of the Internet infrastructure,
or telephone switching equipment. Another option would be an electromagnetic
weapon emitting a pulse that could destroy or interrupt electronic equipment.
Attacks launched in cyberspace could involve diverse methods of exploiting
vulnerabilities in computer security: computer viruses, stolen passwords,
insider collusion, software with secret "back doors" that intruders
can penetrate undetected, and orchestrated torrents of electronic traffic
that overwhelm computers-which are known as "denial of service" attacks.
Attacks could also involve stealing classified files, altering the content
of Web pages, disseminating false information, sabotaging operations, erasing
data, or threatening to divulge confidential information or system weaknesses
unless a payment or political concession is made. If terrorists managed to
disrupt financial markets or media broadcasts, an attack could undermine
confidence or show panic. Attacks could also involve remotely hijacking control
systems,with potentially dire consequences: breaching dams, colliding airplanes,
shutting down the power grid, and so on.
What is domestic terrorism?
Just as differing definitions of terrorism are offered by government agencies
and other experts, so the meaning of domestic terrorism is also hard to pin
down. The FBI, the lead federal agency dealing with domestic terrorism, has
defined it as "the unlawful use, or threatened use, of force or violence
by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States
or its territories without foreign direction committed against persons or property
to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment
thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." The U.S.A.
Patriot Act, passed in the wake of the September 11 attacks, defines domestic
terrorism as criminal acts that are "dangerous to human life" and
seem to be meant to scare civilians or affect policy. Civil rights groups have
expressed concern that this definition is overly broad. Not all politically
motivated violence qualifies as terrorism (for instance, the FBI and some terrorism
experts did not regard the Unabomber, who says his anti-modern beliefs were
behind a 17-year mail-bombing campaign, as a terrorist), nor do all groups
that espouse extremist ideas turn to terrorist acts. Experts do not consider
all political assassinations or hate crimes to be terrorist attacks, and some
critics note that politics often helps determine what gets labeled domestic
terrorism as opposed to criminal activity.
What types of domestic terrorism are there?
The FBI classifies domestic terrorist threats mostly by political motive, dividing
them into three main categories: left-wing, right-wing, and special-interest.
Religious sects have also been connected with terrorist incidents.
What is left-wing domestic terrorism?
Terrorist activity by anti-capitalist revolutionary groups. In the late nineteenth
century, immigrants from Eastern Europe sympathetic to the international
anarchist movement launched what historians consider the first wave of domestic
terrorism in the United States. Anarchists tried to kill the steel tycoon
Henry Clay Frick in 1892 and bombed Chicago's Haymarket in 1898. In 1901,
an anarchist sympathizer named Leon Czolgosz assassinated President William
McKinley in Buffalo, New York. Another wave of left-wing terrorist activity
began in the 1960s. Far-left groups such as the Weather Underground, the
Symbionese Liberation Army, and the Armed Forces for Puerto Rican National
Liberation (FALN) used bombings and kidnappings to draw attention to their
radical causes. By the mid-1980s, however, left-wing terrorism had begun
Are left-wing domestic terrorists still active?
The only such groups still active, experts say, are Puerto Rican separatists,
but even their activists have been scaled back. In its heyday, the FALN tried
to kill President Truman, stormed the House of Representatives, and set off
bombs in New York City, but Puerto Rican extremists today tend to confine
their activities to Puerto Rico. On another front, the FBI warns that anarchist
and socialist groups, which have seen a revival since the 1999 World Trade
Organization meeting in Seattle, represent "a latent but potential terrorist
Does Iran sponsor terrorism?
Yes. The State Department calls the Islamic Republic of Iran the world's "most
active state sponsor of terrorism." Iran continues to provide funding,
weapons, training, and sanctuary to numerous terrorist groups based in the
Middle East and elsewhere. But reformist elements in the Iranian leadership
and an increasingly discontented public are questioning the country's hard-line
policies, rigid fundamentalism, and anti-Western bent.
What sort of government rules Iran?
Since a 1979 revolution led by the Ayatollah Khomeini toppled the American-backed
regime of the Shah, the country has been governed by Shiite Muslim clerics
committed to a stern interpretation of Islamic law. Iran today has two main
leaders: Muhammad Khatami is the popularly elected president, and Ayatollah
Ali Khamenei is the supreme leader. Khatami is reform-minded, but anti-American,
anti-Western hard-liners like Khamenei still dominate the Iranian military
and intelligence services.
Which terrorist groups does Iran support?
Iran mostly backs Islamist groups, including the Lebanese Shiite militants
of Hezbollah (which Iran helped found in the 1980s) and such Palestinian terrorist
groups as Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad. It was also reportedly involved
in a Hezbollah-linked January 2002 attempt to smuggle a boatload of arms to
the Palestinian Authority. Iran has given support to the Kurdistan Workers'
Party, a Kurdish separatist movement in Turkey, and to other militant groups
in the Persian Gulf
region, Africa, and Central Asia.
What terrorist activities have been linked with Iran?
The U.S. government first listed Iran as a terrorist sponsor in 1984. Among
its activities have been the following: In November 1979, Iranian student
revolutionaries widely thought to be linked to the Khomeini government occupied
the American Embassy in Tehran. Iran held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days.
Observers say Iran had prior knowledge of Hezbollah attacks, such as the
1988 kidnapping and murder of Colonel William Higgins, a U.S. Marine involved
in a U.N. observer mission in Lebanon, and the 1992 and 1994 bombings of
Jewish cultural institutions in Argentina. Iran still has a price on the
head of the Indian-born British Novelist Salman Rushdie for what Iranian
leaders call blasphemous writings about Islam in his 1989 novel The Satanic
Verses. U.S. officials say Iran supported and inspired the group behind the
1996 truck bombing of Khobar Towers, a U.S. military residence in Saudi Arabia,
which killed 19 U.S. servicemen.
Does Iran have weapons of mass destruction?
Yes. According to the CIA, Iran possesses chemicals that can induce bleeding,
blistering, and choking, as well as the bombs and artillery shells to deliver
these agents. Iran also has an active biological weapons program, driven in
part by its acquisition of "dual-use" technologies, supplies and
machinery that can be put to either harmless or deadly uses. Finally, with
help from Russia, Iran is building a nuclear power plant, but U.S. officials
say that Iran is more interested in developing a nuclear weapon than in producing
Does Iran have missiles that can deliver weapons of mass destruction?
Yes. Iran has hundreds of Scuds and other short-range ballistic missiles. It
has also manufactured and flight-tested the Shahab-3 missile, which has a
range of 1,300 kilometers-enough to hit Israel or Saudi Arabia. Moreover,
Iran is developing missiles with even greater range, including one that it
says will be used to launch satellites but that experts say could also be
used as an intercontinental ballistic missile.
Which countries have supplied Iran with missile technology?
They would be Russia, China, and North Korea.
Has Iraq sponsored terrorism?
Yes. Saddam Hussein's dictatorship provided headquarters, operating bases,
training camps, and other support to terrorist groups fighting the governments
of neighboring Turkey and Iran, as well as to hard-line Palestinian groups.
During the 1991 Gulf War, Saddam commissioned several failed terrorist attacks
on U.S. facilities. The State Department lists Iraq as a state sponsor of
terrorism. The question of Iraq's link to terrorism grew more urgent with
Saddam's suspected determination to develop weapons of mass destruction,
which Bush the administration officials feared he might share with terrorists
who could launch devastating attacks against the United States.
About the author:
Major Avi Nardia (Owner – Chief Instructor, Lotar Self
Defense and Fitness) was taught the LOTAR/KAPAP system at a young age by his
father (a member in the first Israeli Special Force Unit). He was sent to the
Israeli Military Academy from the age of 14 years where he was groomed to be
an officer. Major Nardia entered the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) at the age
of 18 and was promoted to Lieutenant shortly before the age of 20. In 1982,
Major Nardia was engaged in battle during the Israeli –Lebanon War. After
his release from the IDF, Major Nardia decided to spend the next seven years
of his life in Japan learning Japanese Karate, Jiu Jitsu and Kendo. He then
returned to Israel and became an active member of the most elite unit of the
police counter-terrorist unit YAMAM (our equivalent would be the Delta Force
in the United States). He was assignedto perform covert intelligence operations,
and to instruct the unit as the specialist on Lotar – CQB - Close Quarter
Battle. These units are quick response units that specialize in skill and silence,
identifying, preventing and arresting terrorists. By the age of 30, Avi had
earned a reputation for being one of the top military and police instructors.
After several years with the YAMAM, he decided to leave the unit and become
a Defense Tactics instructor for Israel’s Police Academy. At the end
of 2001, just prior to his moving to Southern California with his family, Nardia
served as a bodyguard in the private sector while also remaining as a Reserve
Officer on the Israeli Police sniper team.
FBI, Bomb Data Center, Intelligence Summary 2002-4, Improvised Explosive
Devices Used in Suicide Bombings. Dated April 4, 2002
US Army MP School, Info Paper, Suicide Bomber/Terrorist Threat, DOD 17Apr 02
BATF, Arson & Explosives Advisory, Islamic Extremist Suicide Bombers, dated
January 30, 2002
BATF Explosive Standards Card, ATF 15400-1
TDS-2062-SHR, Estimating Damage to Structures from Terrorism Bombs, SEP 98
Army Regulation 190-14, CARRYING OF FIREARMS AND USE OF FORCE FOR LAW
ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES
FM 19-10, Military Police Law and Order Operations, dated September 1987
Israeli Defense Forces in Pictures web site, picture of explosives found in
a vehicle, dated April 27, 2002
Governor's Office of Emergency Services, State of California, Information Bulletin,
Response to a Suicide/Homicide Bombing Scene, dated May 22, 2002
Governor's Office of Emergency Services, State of California, Information Bulletin,
Response to a Suicide/Homicide Bombing
"Pre-detonation”, dated May 30, 2002 Fort Lewis Anti-terrorism Officer
Tom Rudd, Slide Presentation entitled
Suicide Bombs and IED's