HISTORY OF LOTAR/KAPAP
Definition of the terms Krav Maga
and Krav Panim le Panim (kapap):
The following definition appears
in the 1965 Army dictionary: Krav
Panim Le Panim (Kapap) (close combat)
- combat in the range of manual contact
with the enemy, which uses spears,
rifles, machine guns and other hand
weapons. The term Krav Maga is not
defined in the army dictionary.
KAPAP (Krav Panim Le Panim) began in the
period of the "Palmach" (strike forces
- plugot machatz in Hebrew) - the original
Israeli elite units, which remain the prototype
for all special forces, to this day.
KAPAP, which means face to face combat (krav panin l'panim in Hebrew),
included all of the various fighting techniques required by a soldier
in the battlefield. Soldiers trained in hand to hand combat (krav
maga in Hebrew), stick fighting using short and long sticks (similar
to the Jo and bo), live and edged weapons, and obstacle courses
designed to toughen them physically and mentally.
It is important to remember that two units operated within the
framework of the Palmach. The first, the Palyam, was the prototype
for the Sea Commandos, the elite navy unit in Israel (similar to
the American Navy Seals). The second unit, called the German unit,
was an undercover guerilla force that penetrated Nazi controlled
regions and infiltrated the ranks of Nazi units. The German unit
operated together with the "Avengers" (nokmim in Hebrew),
a secret team that hunted, arrested and sometimes executed fugitive
Nazi war criminals across the world.
Later on, with the establishment of the official armed forces of
the State of Israel, Kapap became an integral part of the training
and continues to this day in elite units such as Yamam.
is a complete combat concept, derived from real-life situations
and personal experience, LOTAR focuses on teaching techniques
that recognize, assess and neutralize a threat in the quickest,
simplest and most instinctive way possible."
In the beginning there was KAPAP, which means face to face combat (krav panin
l'panim in Hebrew), this included only the fighting techniques that were necessary
for the battlefield. These included hand-to-hand combat, stick-fighting using
short and long sticks, live and edged weapons, and obstacle courses designed
to toughen them physically and mentally. KAPAP was the guerilla warfare combat
techniques utilized by the first Israeli Commands who fought for the creation
of Israel. From these KAPAP techniques the primary people involved went in
different directions some took out the military applications and created Krav
Maga, which was geared more towards a very basic self-defense system.
Kapap is the former term for the modern term LOTAR. LOTAR as a style continued
to be cultivated and became Micro Combat or LOTAR. It was at this time that
the innovators of the LOTAR system changed forever the training style of LOTAR
by creating a more dynamic approach in place of the static training that was
in place at the time. This Dynamic approach integrated incredible stress induced
tactics teaching the student how to react to the ever-changing combat environment
while under stress. The system of LOTAR kept moving and changing to address
changing world of Counter Terrorism in Israel and continues to do so through
recently LOTAR has not been taught outside of Israel. Former Israeli
Defense Force Major Avi Nardia, a veteran martial artist and former
LOTAR instructor for the YAMAM (Israel's most elite Counter Terrorist
Unit), The YAMAM employs only battletested techniques, which have
been cultivated over time and personal experience. The martial
art and theory of LOTAR is the backbone of the YAMAM Counter Terror
System it operates under the idea that, the simplest instinctive
method of self-defense is the most effective
Under the instruction of Maj. Avi Nardia and the staff at LOTAR International,
the System of LOTAR has been opened to both Law Enforcement and Civilians for
the very first time outside of Israel.
LOTAR encapsulates the entirety of fighting techniques used in close encounter
combat - from empty hand, through the use of edged weapons and firearms, up
to infiltration and sabotage training, as Israel's elite forces practice them.
It combines shooting and self defense and analysis of all kinds of different
and unusual violent situations, using any available weapon or improvising one,
considering the environmental conditions - urban or rural, light, ground, water
and weather, and long, short and close distance.
With the recent terrorist activities brought to light in the last two years
and the number ADW (Assault with a Deadly Weapon) cases at an all time high,
civilians, law enforcement, and even the military are now more than ever vulnerable
to random acts of violence. Personal security is no longer an assumed right.
Armed burglary, rape, murder, home intrusion, aggravated assault, carjacking,
kidnapping, and terrorism are on the rise. Random acts of violence are occurring
at this moment, without warning and without prejudice.
of all ages, business executives, and the corporate traveler are
all at risk the moment they walk out the door or unfortunately
even before. LOTAR, derived from real-life situations and personal
experience, focuses on teaching techniques that recognize, assess
and neutralize a threat in the quickest, simplest and most instinctive
September 11th brought devastation and terror never before seen by this country.
Since that infamous day, we have come to the unacceptable realization that
the most powerful military in the world and that U.S. law enforcement was and
presently is not adequately prepared to combat such horrific acts. Acts of
terrorism cannot be fought with solutions wrought by probable scenarios. The
YAMAM, the elite of the elite within the Israeli Special Forces are considered
the best in the world when it comes to Counter Terrorist Tactics and Execution.
Their reputation has been borne out of continuous cultivation of real life
Counter-Terror theory and methods due to the never-ending terrorist activity,
fought on a daily basis. These battle-tested theories and tactics have been
proven time and time again to work under the most stressful and realistic conditions.
The majority of existing martial arts schools, although based on martial art
and theory, have lost the actual application of the techniques that they are
teaching. LOTAR has been created around the modern day martial application,
continually modified to address the ever changing world and the need for new
Major Avi Nehar-Dha: (Avi Nardia)
YAMAM - counter terror elite force Intelligence team member former and the
unit combat instructor, Major Avi Nardia is aware of most of the Military Special
Forces and Law Enforcement techniques in Hand to Hand combat as well as the
Physical and mental requirements to combat terrorism on all levels. In Israel
he is the only instructor that teached at " Nativ " unit, Yamam unit ,IDF and
also the Israeli police operational academy .Major Avi Nardia has the real-life
experience in combating terrorism around the world this experience cannot be
taught in a classroom or in a training hall but must be hard earned on the
Battlefield. It is this experience that sets him apart from other Martial arts
Instructors around the world.
the last years Avi traveled internationally training Counter Terror
Units and Elite units in the following areas:
High Risk Entry
Bus/ Train/ Aircraft Interdiction
Command Post procedures
And the most requested and required course: KAPAP/Lotar (The Martial Arts of
the Israeli Special Forces)
In Israel Avi specialized in teaching Civilians at Tel-Aviv University, Bar-Ilan
University and Spivak Handicap center courses that ranged from Traditional
Martial Arts ( Kendo , Iaido, Jodo, Ju Jitsu- Taiho jutsu , Kyudo, Thai-Box)
to sport and Modern Martial Arts such as Kapap/Lotar, Olympic fencing and Theatrical
was also involved with the Israeli Social Service program in teaching
Kapap-Self Defense to Battered Women and rape Victims.
Avi specialized in Traditional Martial Arts as well as Modern sports sciences,
he has a BSc and is a certified Athletic trainer, certified sports therapist,
Fitness and Weight room instructor, certified coach from Wingate Sport University
in Israel. You can reach Avi through email: firstname.lastname@example.org