Martial Arts Definitions C

Martial Arts Definitions
Capoeira: A Brazilian form of combat adapted by African slaves to fight oppression. Capoeira is dance-like, and many believe it was developed this way to be disguised as a dance to the slave owners.
Cha chuan: A northern Chinese form of kung fu developed from 14th to 17th century by Muslims of Sinkiang, Chinghai, and Kansu, in the west and south of China. In this system, practitioners fight from long range using high, long leaps to close the gap.
Chashi: A Chinese exercise tool once made of iron and more recently of cement. These block-like objects, with handles, are used in one- and two-hand exercises to strengthen the the wrists and arms.
Chi: “Spirit,” “air,” “breath,” or “spirit energy.” A biophysical energy generated through breathing techniques studied in kung fu. Ideally, chi can infuse a person with tremendous vitality and make him or or her extremely powerful in action, much moreso than power developed through the muscular system alone.
Chiang: “Spear.” One of the major Chinese weapons practiced in wushu.
Chiburi: “Removing blood from the sword.” In iaido (way of the sword), a sharp downward stroke of the sword done in such a way as to shake off the blood accumulated from previous cutting actions.
Chien: A double-edged sword used in many styles of kung fu. Also known as the “gim” or “jyan.”
Chikara: “Strength” or “power.”
Chi Kung: A breathing exercise that cultivates chi and transmits it to all the bodily organs. Known in ancient China as “the method to repel illness and prolong life.”
Chikuto: See “shinai.”
Chimpan: The referee of a match. Also known as “shimban,” “sinban,” or “shimpan.”
Ching lo: Accupuncture’s twelve meridians of the body on which they key points of treatment lie and which are associated with the vital organs.
Ching Shien: Spirit of vivacity in the Chinese martial arts.
Chi sao: “Sticking hands.” An exercise used in Wing Chun kung fu that develops sensitivity to the hands and arms.
Chong bong: See “bo.”
Choong dan: “Middle” or “center.” Region of the body from the neck to the waist, used to explain target areas.
Choong sim: Center of gravity.
Cho wa: In the Japanese martial arts, the harmonious mental and physical reaction while at practice.
Choy li fut: One of the most popular southern Chinese kung fu systems. Choy li fut is essentially a long-range form of Chinese boxing that relies heavily on strong horse stances and graceful yet dynamic long-handed techniques.
Chuan: A general term used loosely to refer to a system of boxing, although it does not apply to any specific style.
Chuan fa: The major Chinese precursor of karate. Most forms of 20th century chuan fa are said to be descendents of Ch’ueh Yuan’s “170 hand and foot positions.”
Chudan: See “choong dan.” Middle.
Chudan-uke: Middle counter.
Chui: “Warning.” Admonition by a referee in a match, short of actual penalty.
Chuken: The middle of the five players on a kendo team.
Chung do kwan: “Blue wave school.” A Korean form of empty hand fighting founded by Won Kook Lee in 1945.
Chung ga: “Augment.”
Chunin: “Middle person.” The second of three ninja military ranks designating the leader of a group of ninja on assignment. Those led by chunin were the genin; those who obtained the assignment were the jonin.
Chwa: Left or the left side.
Corno Breton: Also known as Cornish wrestling, this form of grappling is very similar to Japanese judo. The most significant difference is that a wrestler is not permitted to go to the ground with an opponent, but must make the throw while standing.